Michael Hardt

Professor of Literature

External address: 
106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal office address: 
Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
(919) 684-3408

Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990
  • M.A., University of Washington 1986
  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. Labor of Dionysus: A Critique of the State-Form. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

Hardt, M. Gilles Deleuze: An Apprenticeship in Philosophy. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.


Hardt, M. "Language at Work." Capital and Language. Ed. C Marazzi. Semiotext(e), 2008. 7-11. (Essay)

Hardt, M. "Thomas Jefferson, or, The Transition of Democracy." Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence. Ed. M Hardt. London: Verso, 2007. vii-xxv. (Introduction)

Hardt, M. "What Affects Are Good For." The Affective Turn: Theorizing the Social. Ed. P Clough and J Halley. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007. viii-xiii. (Introduction)

Hardt, M. "Und jetzt, Herr Hardt?." Und jetzt? Politik, Protest und Propaganda. Ed. H Geiselberger. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt, 2007. 347-360.

Hardt, M. "Bathing in the Multitude." Crowds. Ed. J Schnapp and M Tiews. Stanford University Press, 2006. 35-40. (Essay)

Hardt, M. "Forward." Gilles Deleuze, Nietzsche and Philosophy. 2006. ix-xiii. (Foreword)

Hardt, M. "Into the Factory: Negri's Lenin and the Subjective Caesura (1968-1973)." The Philosophy of Antonio Negri. Ed. T Murphy and A-K Mustapha. London: Pluto Press, 2005. 7-37. (Essay)

Hardt, M, and Hall, S. "Changing States: In the Shadows of Empire." Changing States: Contemporary Arts and Ideas in the Era of Globalisation. Ed. G Tawadros. Institute of International Visual Arts, 2004. 132-137. (Essay)

Hardt, M, Böhnel, M, and Lehmann, V. "Versallen am Hofe Bushs." American Empire – No Thank You: Andere Stimmen Aus Amerika. Berlin: Kai Homilius Verlag, 2003. 75-90.

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. "Foreword." Another World is Possible: Popular Alternatives to Globalization at the World Social Forum. Ed. W Fisher and T Ponniah. Zed Books, 2003. xvi-xix. (Foreword)


Hardt, M, and Hoffman, J. "Practices of Love." Mousse 34 (2012): 158-161. (Interview)

Hardt, M, Berlant, L, Davis, H, and Sarlin, P. "On the Risk of a New Relationality." Reviews in Cultural Theory 2.3 (2012): 6-27. (Interview)

Hardt, M. "For Love or Money." Cultural Anthropology 26.4 (November 2011): 676-682. Full Text

Hardt, M. "Note from the Editor." South Atlantic Quarterly 110.4 (October 1, 2011): 964-964. Full Text

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. "La costituzione del comune e le ragioni della sinistra." MicroMega (August 2011): 16-27.

Hardt, M. "Note from the Editor." South Atlantic Quarterly 110.3 (July 1, 2011): 746-746. Full Text

Hardt, M. "The Militancy of Theory." South Atlantic Quarterly 110.1 (January 1, 2011): 19-35. Full Text

Hardt, M, Wissa, K, and Catanese, C. "Interview." The White Review 2 (2011). (Interview)

Hardt, M, Berlant, L, Davis, H, and Sarlin, P. "No One is Sovereign in Love." No More Potlucks 18 (2011). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Lubiano, W. "Obama and the Left at Midterm." South Atlantic Quarterly 110.1 (2011): 233-234. (Editorial Comment, Introduction) Full Text


Hardt, M, Negri, T, and Darío Mosquera, F. "Hay que abordar la manera en que los movimientos se piensan a sí mismos." El Telégrafo (November 2012). (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Between Schmitt and Foucault: An Interview with Michael Hardt." Spectra 2.1 (November 2012). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Pulska Group, . "Question of Space and Experimentation with Democracy Go Together." Venice Architecture Biennale (August 15, 2012). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Brigaldino, G. "Democracy on the Defensive." Newtopia Magazine (March 2012). (Interview)

Holloway, J. "Creating commonwealth and cracking capitalism: a cross-reading (part 1)." Trans. M Hardt. Shift Magazine 14 (January 2012). (Scholarly Commentary)

Hardt, M. "Herrschaft ohne Herrscher." The European (2012): 81-83. (Occasional Writing)

Christensen, P, Nielsen, P, and Poulsen, L. "Magt og Modstand (Power and Resistance)." (2012).

Horsfield, C, Manning, E, Massumi, B, and Murphie, A. "A Conversation." Biennale of Sydney Catalogue (2012): 53-63. (Interview)

Hjemdal, TI, and Durmann Melson, A. "A Conversation with Michael Hardt." (2012). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. "What To Expect in 2012." Adbusters (December 2011). (Occasional Writing)