Michael Hardt

Professor of Literature

External address: 
106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal office address: 
Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
(919) 684-3408

Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990
  • M.A., University of Washington 1986
  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hardt, M. "Toni Negri’s Practical Philosophy." Body Politics: Disease, Desire, and the Family. Ed. A Gordon and M Ryan. Boulder: Westview Press, 1994. 225-28. (Essay)

Hardt, M. "The Anatomy of Power." The Savage Anomaly. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990. xi-xvi. (Foreword)


Hardt, M, and Kinsman, G. "From the Perspective of Resistance." Upping the Anti 5 (October 2007): 73-85. (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Jefferson and Democracy." American Quarterly 59.1 (March 2007): 41-78.

Hardt, M, and Schwartz, L. "Talking into Being." Rain Taxi 12.3 (2007): 50-52. (Interview)

Hight, C, and Hardt, M. "Designing Commonspaces: Riffing with Michael Hardt on the Multitude and Collective Intelligence." Architectural Design 76.5 (September 2006): 70-73. Full Text

Hardt, M. "From Imperialism to Empire." The Nation 283.4 (July 31, 2006): 26-26. (Review)

Tsuda, K, and Hardt, M. "Welcoming the Multitude." The Brown Journal of World Affairs 13.1 (2006): 11-18. (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Second Empire; Or, The Eighteenth Brumaire of George W. Bush." Radical History Review 2006.95 (2006): 89-92. (Occasional Writing) Full Text

Hardt, M. "Flesh exposure of Pasolini." Multitudes 18.4 (December 1, 2004): 159-167. (Review) Full Text

Hardt, M, and Negri, T. "Multitude: War and democracy in the Empire era - Good selections." Multitudes 18.4 (December 1, 2004): 107-117. (Review) Full Text


Hardt, M. "Jenseits von Markt und Staat." Telepolis (May 20, 2010). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Vogel, S. "Es gab immer Alternativen." Der Freitag (April 8, 2010): 17-17. (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Dean, M. "Ni público ni privado, sino común." Desinformémonos 5 (March 2010). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Gerbaudo, P. "Sul clima un nuovo movimento." Il Manifesto (December 7, 2009). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Santoro, G. "Orizzonte comune." Carta (July 2009): 22-25. (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Horvat, S. "Neoliberalizam je mrtav, ali jos se ne vidi alternativa." Obzor (April 4, 2009): 10-12. (Interview)

White, M. "An Interview with Michael Hardt." (January 2009). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Maurette, P. "¿El imperio se acerca a su fin?." N: Revista de cultura (November 1, 2008): 10-11. (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Curcio, A. "Rappresentanza vs differenza." Carta 10.35 (September 26, 2008): 54-55. (Interview)