Michael Hardt

Professor of Literature

External address: 
106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal office address: 
Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
(919) 684-3408

Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990
  • M.A., University of Washington 1986
  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hardt, M, Veroli, N, and Mudede, C. "Challenging Empire." Radical Society 29.4 (December 2002): 59-73. (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Il tramonto del mondo contadino nell’Impero." Posse (May 2002): 189-211.

Hardt, M. "From Porto Alegre: Today’s Bandung?”." New Left Review 14 (March 2002): 112-118.

Hardt, M, Negri, A, Brown, N, and Szeman, I. "Subterranean Passages of Thought: Empire’s Inserts." Cultural Studies 16.2 (2002): 193-212. (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. "Biopolitical production." Multitudes 1.1 (December 1, 2000): 16-28. Full Text

Hardt, M. "Guaranteed Income, or, The Separation of Labor from Income." Hybrid: Journal of Law and Social Change 5 (2000): 21-32.

Hardt, M, and Dumm, T. "Sovereignty, Multitudes, Absolute Democracy." Theory and Event 4.3 (2000). (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Introduction." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 19.2 (September 1, 1999): 41-42. Full Text

Hardt, M. "Affective Labor." boundary2 26.2 (January 1999): 89-100.

Hardt, M. "The Global Society of Control." Discourse 20.3 (1998): 139-152.


Dangl, B. "Interview." Dissident Voice (April 20, 2004). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Kjersgaard, CB. "In Fact I Want All of Us to Be Rich." Nyhedsmagasinet RÆSON (February 18, 2004). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Lie, T. "Fra arbeid til samarbeid." Le monde diplomatique (Scandinavian edition) (December 2003): 3-5. (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Anti-Europeanism and Anti-Americanism." The Guardian (February 2003): 34-. (Occasional Writing)

Burdick, K, and Mastrogiovanni, A. "On Global Democracy." Bard Politik: The Bard Journal of Global Affairs (2003): 30-34. (Introduction)

Maffezzini, I. "Après Empire." Conjunctures (Quebec) 36 & 37 (2003): 15-30. (Interview)

Böhnel, M, and Lehmann, V. "Versallen am Hofe Bushs." American Empire – No Thank You: Andere Stimmen Aus Amerika (2003): 75-90. (Interview)

Hardt, M. "On Global Democracy." Dagens Nyheter Newspaper (Sweden) (December 30, 2002). (Occasional Writing)

Hardt, M. "Une conception non libérale du pluralisme." Magazine littéraire 406 (February 2002): 51-51. (Occasional Writing)

Hardt, M. "On Empire and Cant: A Response to Mitchell Cohen." Dissent (2002): 107-108. (Occasional Writing)