Michael Hardt

Professor of Literature

External address: 
106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal office address: 
Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
(919) 684-3408

Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990
  • M.A., University of Washington 1986
  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. Declaration. Argo Navis (self-published), 2012.

Hardt, M. The Procedures of Love. Kassel, Germnany: Documenta, 2012. (Minor Book)

Hardt, M. The Procedures of Love. Kassel, Germnany: Documenta, 2012. (Minor Book)

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. Commonwealth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.

Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence. Ed. M Hardt. London: Verso, 2007.

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. Multitude. New York, NY: Penguin Press, 2004.

The Jameson Reader. Ed. M Hardt and K Weeks. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000.

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.

Radical Thought in Italy. Ed. M Hardt and P Virno. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. (Edited Book)

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. Labor of Dionysus: A Critique of the State-Form. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.


Hardt, M, and Holloway, J. "Creating commonwealth and cracking capitalism: a cross-reading (part 1)." Trans. M Hardt. Bajo el volcán 11.18 (March 2012): 121-141.

Hardt, M, and Holloway, J. "Creating Commonwealth and Cracking Capitalism: A Cross-Reading (Part 1)." Shift Magazine 14 (January 2012): 13-17.

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. "Response to David Harvey’s Review of "Commonwealth"." Artforum International (November 2009): 211-215.


Lanteri, A, and Vromen, J. "Introduction." January 1, 2013. 1-8. Full Text

Hardt, M. "The Procedures of Love." More Love. Ed. C Schneider. Ackland Art Museum, 2013. 161-165.

Hardt, and M, . ""Alte Verträge" und die gesellschaftliche Macht des Rheingoldes." Götterdämmerung, Bayerische Staatsoper at Nationalstheater München. June 2012. 52-62. (Essay)

"The Procedures of Love." The Book of Books. 2012. 430-431.

Hardt, M. "Production and Distribution of the Common." Being an Artist in Post-Fordist Times. Ed. P Gielen and P de Bruyne. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2009. 45-54.

Hardt, M. "Revolution." Examined Life: Excursions with Contemporary Thinkers. Ed. A Taylor. 2009. 133-154.

Hardt, M. "Creation Beyond Measure." The Labor of Job by Antonio Negri. Duke University Press, 2009. vii-xv. (Foreword)

Hardt, M. "Three Keys to Understanding Constituent Power." Insurgencies by Antonio Negri. University of Minnesota Press, 2009. vii-xiii. (Foreword)

Mitzi, DB. "Preface." May 14, 2008. Full Text


Hardt, M. "The Power to be Affected." International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 28.3 (September 2015): 215-222. Full Text

Hardt, M. "How to Write with Four Hands." Genre 46.2 (June 1, 2013): 175-182. Full Text

Hardt, M, and Makdisi, S. "Romantisme et multitudes Politique du langage." Multitudes 55.4 (January 1, 2013): 62-70. (Review) Full Text

Hardt, M, and Espinoza, M. "El reconocimento de nuestra condición común." Youkali 15 (2013): 155-158. (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Note from the Editor." South Atlantic Quarterly 111.4 (October 1, 2012): 826-826. Full Text

Hardt, M. "Note from the Editor." South Atlantic Quarterly 111.3 (July 1, 2012): 564-564. Full Text

Hardt, M. "Falsify the Currency!." South Atlantic Quarterly 111.2 (April 1, 2012): 359-379. Full Text

Hardt, M, and Reyes, A. ""New Ways of Doing": The Construction of Another World in Latin America: An Interview with Raúl Zibechi." South Atlantic Quarterly 111.1 (January 1, 2012): 165-191. (Interview) Full Text

Hardt, M. "Response: Reveal the Apparatus." Focaal: Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology 64 (2012): 61-65.

Hardt, M, and Hoffman, J. "Practices of Love." Mousse 34 (2012): 158-161. (Interview)


Hardt, M, Curcio, A, and Roggiero, G. "Un’alternativa in cerca di autori." Il manifesto (September 10, 2013). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Machado, U. "Protestos recusam representação política por uma "democracia real", diz professor dos EUA." Fohla de São Paulo (July 4, 2013). (Interview)

Kornblatt, I. "Interview." Swarthmore Review 1.2 (May 2013): 19-21. (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Preoccupying: Michael Hardt." The Occupied Times of London 21 (May 2013): 12-13. (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Wall Street, War Street, Debt Machine." Tidal: Occupy Theory 4 (2013): 18-19. (Occasional Writing)

Ariadad, S. "Interview." Brand 1 (2013): 21-23. (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Praktyka Teoretyczna Collective, . "Communism is the Ruthless Critique of All that Exists." UniNnomade (December 3, 2012). (Interview)

Hardt, M. "La seconda volta di Obama." alfabeta 3.25 (December 2012): 2-2. (Essay)

Hardt, M, and Schwartz, L. "Love as Such." The Conversant (December 2012). (Interview)

Hardt, M, Sundell, T, and Toivanen, T. "Even When You Don’t See It, It’s Still There." Commons.fi (December 2012). (Interview)


After Empire. Writer. (2012)