Michael Hardt

Michael Hardt

Professor of Literature

External address: 
106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal office address: 
Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
(919) 684-3408

Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990
  • M.A., University of Washington 1986
  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hardt, M. “Language at Work.” Capital and Language, edited by Christian Marazzi, Semiotext(e), 2008, pp. 7–11.

Hardt, M. “Thomas Jefferson, or, The Transition of Democracy.” Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence, edited by Michael Hardt, Verso, 2007, pp. vii–xxv.

Hardt, M. “What Affects Are Good For.” The Affective Turn: Theorizing the Social, edited by Patricia Clough and Jean Halley, Duke University Press, 2007, pp. viii–xiii.

Hardt, M. “Und jetzt, Herr Hardt?.” Und Jetzt? Politik, Protest Und Propaganda, edited by H. Geiselberger, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt, 2007, pp. 347–60.

Hardt, M. “Bathing in the Multitude.” Crowds, edited by Jeffrey Schnapp and Matthew Tiews, Stanford University Press, 2006, pp. 35–40.

Hardt, M. “Forward.” Gilles Deleuze, Nietzsche and Philosophy, 2006, pp. ix–xiii.

Hardt, M. “Into the Factory: Negri's Lenin and the Subjective Caesura (1968-1973).” The Philosophy of Antonio Negri, edited by Timothy Murphy and Abdul-Karim Mustapha, Pluto Press, 2005, pp. 7–37.

Hardt, M., and Stuart Hall. “Changing States: In the Shadows of Empire.” Changing States: Contemporary Arts and Ideas in the Era of Globalisation, edited by Gilane Tawadros, Institute of International Visual Arts, 2004, pp. 132–37.

Hardt, M., et al. “Versallen am Hofe Bushs.” American Empire – No Thank You: Andere Stimmen Aus Amerika, Berlin: Kai Homilius Verlag, 2003, pp. 75–90.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “Foreword.” Another World Is Possible: Popular Alternatives to Globalization at the World Social Forum, edited by William Fisher and Thomas Ponniah, Zed Books, 2003, pp. xvi–xix.


Hardt, M. “Note from the editor.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 111, no. 4, Sept. 2012. Scopus, doi:10.1215/00382876-1724201. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Note from the editor.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 111, no. 3, June 2012. Scopus, doi:10.1215/00382876-1596281. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Falsify the Currency!.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 111, no. 2, Apr. 2012, pp. 359–79. Manual, doi:10.1215/00382876-1548257. Full Text

Hardt, M., and A. Reyes. “"New Ways of Doing": The Construction of Another World in Latin America: An Interview with Raúl Zibechi.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 111, no. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. 165–91. Manual, doi:10.1215/00382876-1472648. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Response: Reveal the Apparatus.” Focaal: Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology, vol. 64, 2012, pp. 61–65.

Hardt, M., and Jens Hoffman. “Practices of Love.” Mousse, vol. 34, 2012, pp. 158–61.

Hardt, M., et al. “On the Risk of a New Relationality.” Reviews in Cultural Theory, vol. 2, no. 3, 2012, pp. 6–27.

Hardt, M., and W. Lubiano. “Obama and the Left at Midterm: Introduction.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 110, no. 1, Dec. 2011, pp. 233–34. Scopus, doi:10.1215/00382876-2010-031. Full Text

Hardt, Michael. “For Love or Money.” Cultural Anthropology, vol. 26, no. 4, Nov. 2011, pp. 676–82. Manual, doi:10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01119.x. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Note from the editor.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 110, no. 4, Sept. 2011. Scopus, doi:10.1215/00382876-1382348. Full Text


Hardt, M., et al. “Hay que abordar la manera en que los movimientos se piensan a sí mismos.” El Telégrafo, Nov. 2012.

Hardt, M. “Between Schmitt and Foucault: An Interview with Michael Hardt.” Spectra, vol. 2, no. 1, Nov. 2012.

Hardt, M., and M. Pulska Group. “Question of Space and Experimentation with Democracy Go Together.” Venice Architecture Biennale, 15 Aug. 2012.

Hardt, M., and Glenn Brigaldino. “Democracy on the Defensive.” Newtopia Magazine, Mar. 2012.

Hardt, M. “Herrschaft ohne Herrscher.” The European, 2012, pp. 81–83.

Christensen, Pil, et al. Magt og Modstand (Power and Resistance). Kritisk Teori, 2012.

Horsfield, C., et al. “A Conversation.” Biennale of Sydney Catalogue, 2012, pp. 53–63.

Hjemdal, T. I., and A. Durmann Melson. A Conversation with Michael Hardt. 2012.

Hoffman, J. “Practices of Love.” Mousse, vol. 34, 2012, pp. 158–61.

Berlant, L., et al. “On the Risk of a New Relationality.” Reviews in Cultural Theory, vol. 2, no. 3, 2012, pp. 6–27.