Michael Hardt

Michael Hardt

Professor of Literature

External address: 
106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal office address: 
Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
(919) 684-3408

Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990
  • M.A., University of Washington 1986
  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. "Globalization and Democracy." Democracy Unrealized: Documenta 11. Ed. O Enwezor. Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2002. 323-336. (Essay)

Hardt, M. "Il brulichio." Rome: Manifestolibri, 2002. 151-155.

Hardt, M. "Il brulichio." Diario Palestinese. Ed. POSSE. Rome: Manifestolibri, 2002. 151-155. (Essay)

Hardt, M. "Gemeinschaftseigentum." Singularitäten – Allianzen. Zurich: Institut für Theorie der Gestaltung und Kunst, 2002. 61-84. (Essay)

Hardt, M. "Un’Europa aperta al mondo." Europa politica: ragioni di una necessità. Ed. H Friese, A Negri, and P Wagner. Rome: Manifestolibri, 2002. 159-166. (Essay)

Hardt, M. "Impero." Lessico postfordista. Ed. A Zanini and U Fadini. Milan: Feltrinelli, 2001. 167-171. (Essay)

Hardt, M. "Internazionalismo e comunicazione." Il manifesto del partito comunista 150 anni dopo. Ed. R Rossandra. Rome: Manifestolibri, 2000. 287-293. (Essay)

Hardt, M. "Keywords." New Media Logbook (Kunst.NRW.NL festival document). Rotterdam: Kunst.nrw.nl, 1999. 62-63.

Hardt, M. "Laboratory Italy." Radical Thought in Italy. Ed. M Hardt and P Virno. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. 1-10. (Introduction)

Hardt, M. "Spinozian Democracy." Marxism in the Postmodern Age. Ed. C Biewener, A Callari, and S Cullenberg. Guilford Press, 1995. 24-32. (Essay)


Hardt, M, and Lubiano, W. "Obama and the Left at Midterm." South Atlantic Quarterly 110.1 (2011): 233-234. (Editorial Comment, Introduction) Full Text

Hardt, M. "The Common in Communism." Rethinking Marxism 22.3 (July 2010): 346-356. Full Text

"Editors' Introduction." Rethinking Marxism 22.3 (July 2010): 296-302. Full Text

Hardt, M. "Tronti’s Topography of Revolt." Genre 43.3/4 (2010): 337-338.

Hardt, M, Negri, A, and Harvey, D. "Commonwealth: An exchange." Artforum International 48.3 (December 1, 2009). (Review)

Hardt, M. "Production and Distribution of the Common." Open: Cahier on Art and the Public Domain 16 (2009): 20-31.

Hardt, M. "Pasolini Discovers Love Outside." Diacritics: A Review of Contemporary Criticism 39.4 (2009): 113-129.

Hardt, M, and El Kilombo, . "Organizing Encounters and Generating Events." In the Middle of a Whirlwind: Web Publication for the 2008 RNC Protests (2008).

Hardt, M. "Ne Darbo Islaisvinimas, O Issilaisvinimas Nuo Darbo!." Juodraštis 1.1 (2008): 28-32. (Interview)


Hardt, M, and Negri, A. "The Fight for 'Real Democracy'." Foreign Affairs Magazine Blog (October 11, 2011). (Occasional Writing)

Hardt, M. "Real Democracy: An Interview with Michael Hardt." Shift Magazine (October 2011). (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Recent Uprisings in the United States and Europe Follow the Lead of Al-Tahir Square." Etemaad Newspaper (July 3, 2011). (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Ganji, I. "Fra Seattle til Kairo." Morgenbladet (May 28, 2011): 35-35. (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. "Arabs are Democracy's New Pioneers." The Guardian (February 25, 2011): 34-34. (Occasional Writing)

Hardt, M. "No One is Sovereign in Love." No More Potlucks 18 (2011). (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Art, Politics, and Love." Common Love (2011): 95-101. (Interview)

Hardt, M. "Da occupywallstreet a occupyeverywhere." Global Project Website (2011). (Interview)

Hardt, M. "L'erreur d'orientation des campus américains." Libération (December 2, 2010). (Occasional Writing)

Hardt, M. "Kommunismus neu denken." Prager Frühling: Magazin für freiheit und sozialismus 8 (October 2010): 9-11. (Interview)