Michael Hardt

Michael Hardt

Professor of Literature

External address: 
106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal office address: 
Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
(919) 684-3408

Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990
  • M.A., University of Washington 1986
  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hardt, M. "Affective Labor." boundary2 26.2 (January 1999): 89-100.

Hardt, M. "The Global Society of Control." Discourse 20.3 (1998): 139-152.

Hardt, M. "Exposure: Pasolini in the Flesh." Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 24.3 (September 1997): 579-587.

Hardt, M. "Prison Time." Yale French Studies 91 (1997): 64-79.

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. "Le lotte non nascono dalla teoria." DeriveApprodi 9/10 (February 1996): 42-43. (Occasional Writing)

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. "Postmodern Law and the withering of civil society." Angelaki 1.3 (1996): 57-72. Full Text

Hardt, M. "L’hibridité de l’Empire." Futur antérieur 27 (1995).

Hardt, M. "The Withering of Civil Society." Social Text 45 (1995).

Hardt, M. "Los Angeles Novos." Futur antérieur 12/13 (1992): 12-26.


Hardt, M. "Ett verkligt krig mot en overklig fiende." Dagens Nyheter Newspaper (2002): B2-B3. (Occasional Writing)

Hardt, M. "Global Elites Must Realise that US Imperialism Isn’t in Their Interest." The Guardian (2002). (Occasional Writing)

Bliwise, R. "Empire: Not So Evil." Duke Magazine (November 2001): 43-47. (Interview)

Engelson, A. "Sovereignty, Multitudes, Absolute Democracy." Washington Law and Politics (October 2001): 22-23. (Interview)

Hardt, M, and Negri, A. "What the Protestors in Genoa Want." The New York Times (July 20, 2001): A23-A23. (Occasional Writing)

Hardt, M. "La nuda vita sotto l’Impero." Il Manifesto Newspaper (1999). (Occasional Writing)

Hardt, M. "Le lotte non nascono dalla teoria." DeriveApprodi 9/10 (February 1996): 42-43.